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Nubia today

(A) in SUDAN:

Historically inhabitants of the area bounded by the First Cataract in the north and the Six cataract south of Khartoum were Nubian. Part of those inhabitants had been Arabized i.e Ja'aliyyin ( the riverain dewellers between Dungula and the sixth Carteret in general sense as well as Ja'aliyyn proper who live between confluence of the Atbara and the Nile and the Sabaloga Gorge- ref. Yusuf Fadl "The Arab & Sudan") as well as part of Dungula.

Nubian Exodus:

Following the inundation of the lowest part of lower Nubia (from Faras in the north and just north of Akasha in the south) by waters of Aswan High Dam in 1963, the inhabitants of the several villages in this area were forced to relocate far in the eastern region of Sudan, while part insisted to remain and left to their destiny challenging the new Lake and inundation. Both groups (those who remained and those who were relocated) have shown a great deal of persistence to keep their identity intact and prominent.

Nubian Disapora:

Nowadays Nubian in the north-The Nile Nubian- are Halfaween ( 2nd Cataract to the northern Sudanese border with Egypt along the Nile) the Mahas (2nd. to 3rd.cataract including Batn Al Hajr,Sokot and Mahas proper) and Dungulawese (from 3rd. cataract to the Shiyjia northern borders. The main population is dispersed in more than a location in Sudan i.e in the New Half Settlements for relocated Nubian, the New Nubia Settlements(Wadi Halfa)built by the Nubian who remained near to their inundated town and villages , the Mahas and the several thousand Nubian who settled in Khartoum and other Sudanese towns.


Nubians of today are not a race but almost some few blood-related large extended families who claim ancestry of Old Nubian , Arabs,Balkan Moslems. It is not the degree of Arabization which distinguishes Nubian from Arabized Nubians , but it is the language ,culture and traditions. Nubian of today still talk old Nubian and preserve some unique Nubian traditions, songs and dances.

Nubian in the north

Although they were quite aware of the risks they are going to face , those who insisted to remain had shown a great deal of tolerance , persistence and self dependence . Their legendary persistence is something to be recorded. When their villages were inundated by the waters of high Dam , they shifted to the nearby dry land and built new settlement. This was not a once occurrence but several times they had to shift and re-build. This continued for almost two decades until they settled finally. Nowadays and only 20 kilometers away from the inundated villages and towns of lower Nubia new Nubia has emerged.

Nubian in the East

Far in the east of Sudan where the land,environment and people are different , the Nubian were forced to relocate and settle. The settlements were a group of monotonously designed similar and identical small houses and villages. Harsh rainy climate, scarcity of clean and potable water and Malaria is what they have to face. The land where they have been relocated used to belong to Nomadic Arabized Tribes who had been compensated by the central government . However they insisted to roam around idly for sometime watching those newcomers. In this new area another chapter of Nubian legendary persistence is written. In a short time they managed to cope. Furthermore they could easily let other's to accept them not as intruders but as people with heritage and knowledge who are capable of developing the area and contribute to the welfare of all there. One of the very rare incidents which need recording is how these Nubian let some of Arab and arabized tribes of the area (Zubaidya ,Shukriya Nomadic Arabs as well as Zaghwa farmers) talk Nubian ,sing and dance Nubian... It is fabulous..!!!

The Will to Remain Nubian

This outstanding civilized attitude and performance of Nubian is genealogical inherited in them. In the past Old Nubia had been a target of several invasions and attacks mainly due to it's wealth and richness. Nubian always managed to overcome the risks of being absorbed by those invaders by sticking to their culture and heritage. Even others who intermarried with those old Nubian (e.g Arabs) had to learn to talk the language of those sedentary Nubian in order to manage life and Coexist with their new partners.. Old Nubian Language played a great role in this respect


Nubian in Egypt had suffered a great deal of insecurity from periodical inundation of their land since 1903(the construction of the first Aswan Dam) and through 1912,1930 (raising of the Aswan Dam) till 1960 -the construction of the Aswan High Dam. They used to seek shelter in the chain of Nubian Mountains along the Nile whenever their villages were inundated. Every time they used to build new settlements which got inundated again and again till they were relocated in Kom Ombo. Thus they had shown a great deal of tolerance and persistence similar to their Sudanese Nubian brothers.The Egyptian Nubian are the Kunuz (Matokia)-an arabized Nubian,the Fadeja ( a continuation of the Nubian in the the northern parts of Sudanese Nubia ), the Nubanised Arabs of Koresko(Eliagat). The Nubian proper there (these who talk old Nubian) are very proud of their culture and heritage . Since they are a very small community in a highly populated Arabized country , their contribution to the welfare of Egypt is hard to separate from other Egyptians.

Respectively neither invasions, exodus nor cultural cleansing for over 5000 years could waiver the will and persistence of Nubians to preserve their culture and heritage .